The sun was now low beneath the horizon. Darkness spread rapidly. None of my selves could see anything beyond the tapering light of our headlamps on the hedge. I summoned them together. "Now," I said, "comes the season of making up our accounts. Now we have got to collect ourselves; we have got to be one self. Nothing is to be seen any more, except one wedge of road and bank which our lights repeat incessantly. We are perfectly provided for. We are warmly wrapped in a rug; we are protected from wind and rain. We are alone. Now is the time of reckoning. Now I, who preside over the company, am going to arrange in order the trophies which we have all brought in. Let me see; there was a great deal of beauty brought in to-day: farmhouses; cliffs standing out to sea; marbled fields; mottled fields; red feathered skies; all that. Also there was disappearance and the death of the individual. The vanishing road and the window lit for a second and then dark. And then there was the sudden dancing light, that was hung in the future. What we have made then to-day," I said, "is this: that beauty; death of the individual; and the future. Look, I will make a little figure for your satisfaction; here he comes. Does this little figure advancing through beauty, through death, to the economical, powerful and efficient future when houses will be cleansed by a puff of hot wind satisfy you? Look at him; there on my knee." We sat and looked at the figure we had made that day. Great sheer slabs of rock, tree tufted, surrounded him. He was for a second very, very solemn. Indeed it seemed as if the reality of things were displayed there on the rug. A violent thrill ran through us; as if a charge of electricity had entered in to us. We cried out together: "Yes, yes," as if affirming something, in a moment of recognition.
As the variation in the responses may show, they could be founded on the historical, social, and individual conditions, which determine the reading. Nonetheless, in the opinion of Wolfgang Iser, the guide of this research, it is first the text which form the responses (before everything else). Therefore, studying various contradictory responses to The Turn of the Screw is the initial point of this research. In other words, how is one single text, that is considered to be the chief provocation of responses, is received differently by different people?
Steven van Els
[email protected] RE: Human Force to Turn a Bolt MadMango (Mechanical) 8 May 02 21:10 I work with ADA (Americans with Disabilities) Standards, and there is one requirement that may help get you in some sort of ergonomics ballpark. The requirement states that any manual operation of a vehicular wheelchair lift shall not exceed 50lbs of force. 50lbs isn't much to your normal male, but average females (~5'-4" ~110lbs) find it on the edge of "hard to move". "Happy the Hare at morning for she is ignorant to the Hunter's waking thoughts." RE: Human Force to Turn a Bolt DesignControl (Mechanical) 8 May 02 23:05 I believe that there are two factors that you need to consider:
1. Pain threashold -- the area of the wrech at the applied force will effect the tolerable pressure experienced by the operator.
2. The proper use of a wrench involves torque, which implies a force couple -- both hands should be used to generate forces in opposite directions, otherwise your knuckles suffer.
DesignControl RE: Human Force to Turn a Bolt Hush (Mechanical) 9 May 02 10:41 Your local occupational health & safety office or workers compensation office should be able to provide you guidelines. Failing that, try to find yourself a good industrial ergonomics text or handbook, if there is such a thing. RE: Human Force to Turn a Bolt gunnarhole (Mechanical) 9 May 02 17:38 Zakk,
In appendix S of the ASME Section VIII pressure vessel code there is an equation given that estimates the stress developed in a manually tightened bolt/stud, using standard wrenches as:
Stress, psi = 45,000/[(bolt nominal diameter, inches)^]
we can estimate that
Torque, in-lbf = CoF * Stress * bolt dia^3 *
where CoF is the coefficient of friction (I usually use )
we know that
Torque = Force, lbf * radius, inches
so given a standard wrench length you should be able to estimate the force. Remember that this is all based on tightened torque. This may be a little more torque than you want to allow over the full range of the lift, but it will give you some insight into a statistically determined upper limit.
Gunnar RE: Human Force to Turn a Bolt MikeMech (Mechanical) 19 May 02 23:43 When I used to design equipment for commercial and military ships, they usually specified a maximum of 50 lbf exerted by a human for normal operation of the equipment.
I've seen this max. value for equipment in the industrial sector as well.
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