It is the cost of housing. When the industrial firm owns its own warehouse it computes the average warehouse cost by summing the cost of operation of the warehouse. This requires adding depreciation cost, warehouse utility cost, warehouse taxes, interest on investment in warehouse, and all other costs except for labor costs, obsolescence cost, stock out cost, and comparable thereto. Since labor cost is charged separately. A distinction must be made between the warehouse rate, or storage rate, and the average warehouse cost. The average warehouse cost is comparable to the warehouse rate.
The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has that are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to optimize the transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker chooses an object ID X to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn’t required to send the content of X because the victim already has it. Now the victim believes that the attacker has X, and it sends the content of X back to the attacker later. (This attack is most straightforward for a client to perform on a server, by creating a ref to X in the namespace the client has access to and then fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it on a client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the server without noticing the merge.)
The history of software configuration management (SCM) in computing can be traced back as early as the 1950s, when CM (for Configuration Management), originally for hardware development and production control, was being applied to software development. Early software had a physical footprint, such as cards , tapes , and other media. The first software configuration management was a manual operation. With the advances in language and complexity, software engineering , involving configuration management and other methods, became a major concern due to issues like schedule, budget, and quality. Practical lessons, over the years, had led to the definition, and establishment, of procedures and tools. Eventually, the tools became systems to manage software changes.  Industry-wide practices were offered as solutions, either in an open or proprietary manner (such as Revision Control System ). With the growing use of computers, systems emerged that handled a broader scope, including requirements management , design alternatives, quality control, and more; later tools followed the guidelines of organizations, such as the Capability Maturity Model of the Software Engineering Institute .