What General Lee's feelings were I do not know. As he was a man of much dignity, with an impassible face, it was impossible to say whether he felt inwardly glad that the end had finally come, or felt sad over the result, and was too manly to show it. Whatever his feelings, they were entirely concealed from my observation; but my own feelings, which had been quite jubilant on the receipt of his letter, were sad and depressed. I felt like anything rather than rejoicing at the downfall of a foe who had fought so long and valiantly, and had suffered so much for a cause, though that cause was, I believe, one of the worst for which a people ever fought, and one for which there was the least excuse.
The war left the Irish nationalist parties highly polarised and embittered. The total casualty list has still not been definitively determined but appears to be about 1,500-2,000 killed with some thousands more injured. The anti-Treatyites entered politics as Fianna Fail in 1927 and came to power peacefully in 1932 – despite widespread rioting between the IRA and the pro-Treaty Blueshirt movement . By 1939, most of what they considered the objectionable features of the Treaty had been removed by acts of parliament. They and Fine Gael (pro-Treaty) dominated Irish politics for most of the 20th century.